There is a view that democracy is increasingly seen as an “emerging right”
ininternational law, a right of peoples to manage their own affairs, overcoming aworld history darkened by dictatorships and oppression.The purpose of this essay is not to look at whether or not this “right” exists, but tolook more fundamentally at the intellectual underpinning of the concept of democracy that forms the basis of this “right”. Generally speaking, what exactly isbeing referred to when global – particularly Western – political leaders refer to“democracy”?This essay analyses the background to the suggestion that a right to democraticgovernance exists, or is beginning to exist in international law. Then, in order toestablish what citizens are theoretically entitled to under this emerging right, itlooks at the value of democracy, the quality of democracy in key Western states,and finally the very real problems that globalisation presents to the rights of countries to manage their own affairs. Throughout the essay, the question isasked, to what extent the “emerging right” is about narrow, electoral issues rather than a fundamental right and ability of the demos to have a full participatory rolein their democracy ? democratic rights essay
The case for optimism appears, at first glance, to be bright. In the second half of the 20
th century, there was a surge of democratic governments overturningvarious types of dictatorship, with over 110 governments in 1991 committed todemocracy and “ people almost everywhere now demanding that government bevalidated by western-style parliamentary, democratic process ”a demand that isreinforced by an increasing need of governments for validation. Democracy isalmost universally seen as
the way of producing this legitimacy.This legitimacy is built on the cornerstones self-determination, freedom of expression and electoral rights. Self-determination has a long pedigree ininternational law, with US President Woodrow Wilson making this a central plankof the post-war redrawing of the map of Europe and elsewhere. This principlewas further strengthened after the Second World War with Article 1.2 of theUnited Nations Charter giving self-determination the status of a fundamentalright.
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The government’s decree No. 47 of 8th Oct; 1971 as amended in 1990, highlighted the capacity building of human resources in industry, commerce and government through training and retraining of workers in order to effectively provide the much needed high quality goods and services in a dynamic economy as ours (Jemerigbo, 2003). This decree led to the establishment of Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in 1973/1974. history of siwes
The growing concern among our industrialists that graduates of our institutions of Higher learning, lack adequate practical background studies preparatory for employment in industries, led to the formation of students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) by ITF in 1993/1994(Information and Guideline for SIWES, 2002). ITF has as one of its key functions; to work as cooperative entity with industry and commerce where students in institutions of higher learning can undertake mid-career work experience attachment in industries which are compatible with student’s area of study (Okorie 2002, in Asikadi 2003).
The students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a skill Training programme designed to expose and prepare students of Agriculture, Engineering, Technology, Environmental, Science, Medical Sciences and pure and applied sciences for the Industrial work situation which they likely to meet after graduation. Duration of SIWES is four months in Polytechnics at the end of NDI, four months in College of Education at the end of NCE II and six months in the Universities at the end of 300 or 400 or 500 levels depending on the discipline (Information and Guideline for SIWES, 2002).
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